NMCR 2010 macrogonus-pachanoi

Gallery

 

A few more of the Trichocereus still at NMCR in 2010:
macrogonus through pachanoi

 

More images of some of the cacti encountered during a visit to NMCR in 2010.
Most of the plants on this page were grown from seed planted in 1980 by Horst. The peculiar and misnamed “v. puquiensis” is the one exception.

Trichocereus macrogonus var. giganteus at NMCR in 2010.
Grown from seed planted in 1980 that came from Robert Field but in 2011 Robert Field told me he had no knowledge of this name. Field DOES have a Trichocereus macrogonus that his father acquired from Blossfeld’s Andean collecting expedition.
This looks very much like that Trichocereus macrogonus at Field’s. Notice that it almost lacks v-marks and only expresses them weakly? Compare to images of the Trichocereus macrogonus at Field’s in “The Macrogonus Onus” (forthcoming here) and at the Trichoserious website.

Trichocereus-macrogonus-giganteus-Field-NMCR

Trichocereus-macrogonus-giganteus-Field-NMCR

 

 

Horst also offered this:

Trichocereus macrogonus KK923

Mother plant in 2010 from Knize seeds that were planted in 1980.

 

Trichocereus-macrogonus-KK923-NMCR_2010

Trichocereus-macrogonus-KK923-NMCR_2010

 

Trichocereus pachanoi var. crassiarboreus

Labeled Trichocereus pachanoi var. crassiarboreus at NMCR. Grown from seeds obtained from Riviere de Carault.
Compare this to Tegelberg’s plant bearing the same name at the Huntington.
Trichocereus-pachanoi-crassiaboreus-NMCR

Trichocereus pachanoi var. puquiensis is clearly a mislabel but isn’t it beautiful!
It was obtained as a live plant from John Rahart in Quartzite at the Mineral Show.

 Trichocereus-pachanoi-var-puquiensis-NMCR-2010

Trichocereus-pachanoi-var-puquiensis-NMCR-2010

 

 

 

Trichocereus pachanoi Tarapoto

      Grown from seed from Tarapota, Peru. Unfortunately Horst did not remember the source for the seeds and all of the planting records were destroyed by the water and mold that were mentioned earlier. (Their planting date not clear but it was well after 1980.)

Trichocereus-pachanoi-Tarapoto-NMCR-2010

 

 

 

And of course our old friend the pachanot was there.

The Trichocereus pachanot mothers at NMCR.

 

Trichocereus-pachanot_NMCR

Trichocereus-pachanot_NMCR

 

 

 

My visit is divided as :

Visiting NMCR in 2010
A-H Ariocarpus – Hoodia
M-R Mammillaria – Ritterocereus
Trichocereus bridgesii – deserticola 
Trichocereus macrogonus — pachanoi (You are here)
Trichocereus poco — Trichocereus thelegonus

I hope that you enjoy seeing NMCR!
 

 

P.C.Hutchison 1597

Trichocereus pachanoi  P.C.Hutchison 1597

 

  Trichocereus pachanoi Peru 57.0884.
Material came from Huancabamba Prov., Piura Dept., Peru. [Link 1] [Link 2]
Paul C. Hutchison collected this as live clones during the late 1950s. 

Hutchison Huancabamba T. pachanoi

    Sadly the display specimens of P.C.Hutchison 1597 periodically experiences heavy predation by thieves and is removed from public display to enable it to recover and survive. Almost all Botanical Gardens have regular plant sales that make such thievery a crime that is directed against everyone.

 

pachanoi or pachanot?

Additional material to ponder: 

 


Copyright © by Keeper Trout

 

Backeberg’s view

Image

 

This is Curt Backeberg’s view of Trichocereus pachanoi 
The image below was published in Backeberg’s 1959 Die Cactaceae.
It shows the Trichocereus pachanoi that was identified
and collected by Backeberg at Huancabamba.
Backeberg_1959_pachanoi_Abb1074

  Assuming there really is such a thing as “Backeberg’s clone” it will look like the tip above and not like the pachanot.
   If anyone knows anything about the material Backeberg said he brought into horticulture I would love hearing about it. Drop me an email or snail mail.

  

Use your back button to return.

Or to go to:

pachanoi or pachanot?

Additional material to ponder: 

 

 

 

 

pachanoi fruit compared to pachanot fruit

Image

      The lack of black and dark brown hairs on the fruit of the pachanot (on the right below) might not be so conceptually challenging for me if Trichocereus pachanoi did not actually exist with blackly or dark brownly hairy fruit (on left below).

fruit-compared-

Copyright © as indicated 

Use your back button to return.

Or to go to:

pachanoi or pachanot?

Additional material to ponder: 

 

 

 

Trichocereus species flowers

Image

   A comparison of the flowers from a few assorted Trichocereus species that appear to be closely related to each other based on their simple morphology. (click here for a larger version):

Trichocereus-flowers-compared

Trichocereus-flowers-compared

Trichocereus-flowers-compared

Trichocereus-flowers-compared

Trichocereus-flowers-compared

Copyright © by Keeper Trout

 

cuttings of Trichocereus pachanoi from Peru

Image

  These are cuttings of a bona fide Trichocereus pachanoi from Peru that were harvested at Matucana and then shipped to the USA. These provided the botanical material that was analyzed by Olabode Ogunbodede; with results published in the 15 September 2010 issue of the Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Volume 131, Issue 2, Pages 356–362).

  These tips spent some months inside of a box traveling through the postal system. Obtaining these cuttings proved to be a surreal adventure as it took well over a year with many convolutions including the final delivery lacking identification labels and documentation. It was nothing short of a minor miracle that successful delivery was actually realized. 

 

cuttings of Trichocereus pachanoi from Peru

cuttings of Trichocereus pachanoi from Peru

cuttings of Trichocereus pachanoi from Peru

 

Images copyrighted by & courtesy of
the Cactus Conservation Institute

 

 

 

Use your back button to return.

Or to go to:

pachanoi or pachanot?

Additional material to ponder: 

 

Trichocereus pachanoi or pachanoids?

Image

  A representative few of the many interesting Trichocereus pachanoi or pachanoid offerings that are present in horticulture.

 

Trichocereus aff. huanucoensis
  This specimen is missing its accession data but is suspected by Jon Trager of being grown from seeds provided to the Huntington by Harry Johnson. 

 The pachanoid Trichocereus aff Huanucoensis

 

Trichocereus huanucoensis

  The next image is of another pachanoid plant at the Huntington. It was grown from seeds provided to them by Harry Johnson. 

 The pachanoid Trichocereus huanucoensis

 

 

   The image below is of a plant of Trichocereus huanucoensis at UC.
   This too was grown from seeds provided to them by Harry Johnson. 

The-pachanoid-Trichocereus-huanucoensis-flowering

 

Trichocereus pachanoi cv. Juul’s Giant
  The cutting shown below was harvested directly from a plant in Tom Juul’s backyard garden in San Francisco. No origin data exists but it is suspected of originating on one of the UC cactus collection expeditions but losing its collection data during transportation. These amazingly productive expeditions were cancelled due to criticism that it was inappropriate for an academic institution and commercial cactus vendors to be engaging in co-ventures (as opposed to the spectrum of other academic-commercial co-ventures that exist at UC outside of the world of cactus collecting.)  

 The pachanoid Trichocereus pachanoi cv. Juul's Giant

 

Trichocerus “peruvianus” Huancabamba (on the left – sp. Peru 64.0762 is to its right and behind it.)
  This entered horticulture via seeds collected in Peru during the 1960s by Dick Van Geest and sold through Mesa Garden over the course of many years. It is variable in appearance but is clearly far more a pachanoi than a peruvianoid.

The-pachanoid-Trichocereus-peruvianus-Huancabamba-SS

 

   There is also some different material that
Paul Hutchison collected as live cuttings from Huancabamba

 

Trichocereus scopulicola
  This Ritter species is currently believed to be extinct in the wild. Or at least several sets of people have been unable to locate it including botanists searching on behalf of the Kew prior to the publication of Hunt’s New Cactus Lexicon. It is suspected of having been extirpated by freely wandering goats, as is the case for a number of cactus species.

  Seed-grown in England.

The pachanoid Trichocereus scopulicola grown in England

 

Seed-grown in Oz.

The pachanoid Trichocereus scopulicola in Oz

 

Seed-grown in USA (NMCR).

The pachanoid Trichocereus scopulicola NMCR

 

Trichocereus pachanoi
  Collected in the 1960s in Huamachuco Prov., La Libertad Dept., Peru.
Paul C. Hutchison, J. K. Wright & R.M. Straw 6212

  (UC Peru 64.0762)
This fat pachanoid specimen is no longer present in UC’s desert garden. The last time I saw it there the plant was suffering badly from heavy predation and the rot produced from careless and badly timed harvesting. This plant has been regularly sold via their annual plant sale so it is a tragic loss to all visitors to that garden.

 The pachanoid Peru 64.0762

 

Trichocereus pachanoi
   Collected in the 1960s in Bongara Prov., Peru
Paul C. Hutchison & Jerry K. Wright 4013
   (UC Peru 65.0729)
More recently this plant had its name tag changed to Echinopsis macrogona and, strangely, was given a new accession number and date. The plant itself, however, has not changed.

 The-pachanoid-Trichocereus-sp-Peru-65-0729

 

Trichocereus pachanoi Strybig
  I was told by the Strybig’s staff that this was obtained from UC. The most plausible candidate would seem to be  Peru 65.0729. However, that plant from UC has been demonstrated to show an interesting spiralling desiccation of its flowers that seems to be trasnferred through its progeny. The Strybig’s does not appear to have this feature. Whether that is enough to make them different or if they are one and the same remains to be proven through study.

A pachanoid Trichocereus pachanoi at the Strybig

 

 The same lineage growing in a commercial cactus grower’s operation.

The pachanoid Trichocereus pachanoi Strybig

 

 

Trichocereus pachanoi R. Montgomery; Peru
   I presently lack any additional data concerning what was said to be a field collection acquired in Peru many years ago.

A-pachanoid-wild-collected-clone-Trichocereus-pachanoi-Peru-RM

 

Trichocereus pachanoi Torres & Torres; N. Chile
   This came from what was believed to be a wild collection made by M & D Torres at fairly high altitude in northern Chile.  It appeared to be a wild plant which, if true, would extend the range of Trichocereus pachanoi into that country.
(This is the plant that provided material for the article “San Pedro in a Pressure Pot”.)

The pachanoid Trichocereus pachanoi Torres & Torres N. Chile

 

 

 

Use your back button to return.

Or to go to:

pachanoi or pachanot?

Additional material to ponder: 

 


Copyright © by Keeper Trout

 


hybrids of some Trichocereus and their parents

Image

  F1 hybrids resulting from a couple of the great many known Trichocereus pachanot crosses.

   The images below are compared to their parents which follow them.

  The first image sheet shows a single set of F1 hybrids produced by George Fuller using both directions of crossing for Trichocereus pachanot X Trichocereus peruvianus:

F1 hybrids of Trichocereus pachanot X Trichocereus peruvianus

[Larger views of the individual images and more from that same crossing.]

Their parents:
The pachanot is on the left and Trichocereus peruvianus is on the right.

Trichocereus pachanot and Trichocereus peruvianus

 

  Next image sheet shows a single set of F1 hybrids resulting from the crossing of Trichocereus pachanot X Trichocereus pachanoi cv. Juul’s Giant:

Trichocereus pachanoi cv. Juuls X pachanot

Their parents:
Our pachanot on the left  & Trichocereus pachanoi cv. Juul’s Giant is on the right.

Trichocerus pachanot and Trichocereus pachanoi cv. Juul's Giant

 

  Rather interesting?

 

Use your back button to return.

Or to return to elsewhere in the article:

pachanoi or pachanot?

Additional material to ponder: 

 


Copyright © by Keeper Trout


Trichocereus pachanoi in Peru

Image

   Trichocereus pachanoi in Peru exhibits a fascinatingly wide range of forms. It is believed to have been introduced from Ecuador some millennia ago so this suggests either that is in error or that it has undergone some surprisingly rapid changes since its introduction. How much of that is due to potential interaction with previously existing Peruvian Trichocereus species and how much is the result of simple recombinant events and local environmental shaping over time remains to be studied.
  Trichocereus pachanoi has been intensively cultivated by humans for an unclear number of millennia although it is clear, based on the archaeological evidence, that it has been at least several. During that process it has been moved all over the Andes, apparently from Ecuador to Argentina, and has become naturalized in a number of areas in Peru. It is popularly cultivated and widely admired for its bountiful fragrant flowers.

   The existance of short and long spined variants is what has helped a perception of intergrading that has confounded botanists and caused some to pronounce a synonymity between Trichocereus pachanoi and Trichocereus peruvianus. Since Trichocereus peruvianus shows a similar spectrum of spination the resulting confusion is understandable.

pachanoi in Peru by Grizzly

pachanoi in Peru by Grizzly

 

Images are copyright © by Grizzly

pachanoi in Ecuador

pachanoi in Bolivia

 

 

Use your back button to return.

To go back to the article:

pachanoi or pachanot?

Additional material to ponder: 

 

pachanoi & pachanot: Topic 2

Image

South American Trichocereus pachanoi
compared to
the predominate “pachanot” cultivated in the USA

 

  This page is a bit image heavy. . . 

  As was mentioned previously, I began referring to this as pachanoi PC out of laziness, namely when growing tired of typing or speaking using ‘the predominate cultivar of Trichocereus pachanoi‘ as a noun. Or PC could as easily refer to the ‘predominate clone’ since it does seem to be produced entirely vegetatively despite it freely flowering & readily hybridizing — or *maybe* it should stand for politically correct,  I don’t know.  (I do know that I have grown to doubt that it is actually a pachanoi and am presently suspecting it may be a pachanoi  hybrid. Let’s come back to that later.)
  Questions have been raised about the culturecentrism of this “PC” view as a basis for a designation. As it is not necessarily the predominate cultivar elsewhere in the world this term PC needed abandonment and replacement.  Not for sake of proposing a name but simply to be able to have a unique noun to be able use as a term of reference so we can discuss the matter.
   As a result, in this discussion it is jokingly referred to as Trichocereus pachanot.
  This is the primary Western cultivar sold in the US under the names Trichocereus pachanoi, San Pedro and sometimes as Echinopsis peruviana in southern California. 

   This is that same bona fide pachanoi growing in a shaman’s garden near Cuzco
(Photo copyright by Geneva Photography)

Trichocereus pachanoi near Cuzco, Peru. Copyright by Geneva Photography.

  Notice the details of the flowers and how smooth edged this plant is? Also how indented/sunken the areoles are and the planar relationship they have to the median of the rib? Take a closer look here or farther below. Now go back to Backeberg’s pachanoi photo and compare this and then compare both to the pachanot.
  Spines here and in Backeberg’s photo are shorter than on the pachanot but spine length is something that can almost be disregarded (within reason) for being a variable characteristic. When they have short spines, it is a common thing for the short expressions of the spination on pachanoi to be consistently much shorter than the already short spines of the pachanot

  Many of the trichs show ranges of characteristics rather than set characteristics so it is easy to become diverted from some important points concerning the predominate cultivar.
a) It does not match the description of pachanoi as given by Rose & others in perhaps minor but very consistent ways.
b) It is readily differentiable from the pachanoi that seems to be most common in Ecuador and Peru. This is true of its morphology, its floral elements and its fruit.
c)  Thus far it has NOT been encountered in the wild or in use among Peruvian shamans.
d) It shows characteristics of both its flower and its fruit, as well as intensely vigorous growth, that are suggestive of it being a selection derived from a hybrid.
e) It is dramatically lower in alkaloid content than a bona fide pachanoi such as would be selected for ceremonial use by a shaman in Peru.
  While a pachanoiXbridgesii is at least plausible, there are other possibilites.
  We may never know the answer with any degree of certainty – perhaps not even with a lot of work that is yet to be done.

  Below we will soon be seeing a series of typical pachanoi from South America compared to the pachanot that we most commonly have growing in the US.
   (Once you’ve had a chance to get a good comparison of those, come back to this link and then compare what you’ve learned about them to some other cultivars)

  The first images below were shared by MS Smith who brought this subject to my attention in the first place. All of these images are said to be of Ecuadorian pachanoi.
  The one on the left is said to be a photo of a voucher collected in Ecuador by Timothy Plowman. The ones on the right were said to be taken in Ecuador as well.
  I do not know their photographers.

!!_002_pachanoi_Ecuador

 

  These next two tips are both Ecuadorian pachanoi sold by Karel Knize in Lima, Peru and shipped to Texas.

!!_003_Pachanoi_EcuadorKnize

  Now this is going to start to get interesting. Or perhaps at some point it will become just boringly repetitive, so feel free to skip ahead whenever that happens to you.
  On the left below is a pachanoi in Peru and on the right is a US horticultural pachanot.
  Pay particular attention to the spination, areoles, flower buds, flowers, pericarpels, tubes, scales, hairs arising from the axils of those scales, the fruit and the contour of the ribs.

 

!!_011_pachanoi_floweringtipscompared

  Ecuadorian pachanoi from Knize (KK339) on the left and on the right pachanot

 

!!_012_pachanoi_tipscompared

 

  Ecuadorian pachanoi from Knize (KK339) on the left and on the right pachanot

 

!!_013_pachanoi_tipscompared

  bona fide pachanoi can sometimes be encountered in the US as is shown on the left (Photo by Anonymous) and on the right is our pachanot again.

 

!!_014_pachanoi_tipscompared

  Peruvian pachanoi on the left (photograph by Grizzly) and on the right pachanot.

 

!!_015_pachanoi_pachanoi_tips

  Peruvian pachanoi from Matucana (photo from Kitzu) on the left and on the right pachanot.

 

!!_016_pachanoi_columns_4

  Ecuadorian pachanoi from Knize on the left and on the right pachanot.

 

!!_017_pachanoi_stemscompared_c


Ecuadorian pachanoi from Knize on the left and on the right pachanot.

!!_018_pachanoi_stemscompared_a

  Ecuadorian pachanoi from Knize on the left and on the right pachanot.

!!_019_pachanoi_stemscompared_b

  Flower buds
  Upper left image is from Peru: Photographer is unknown to us.
  The bottom left and the entire right column are pachanot.

!!_020_pachanoi_flowerbudscompared

  Flower buds
In Peru on left (Geneva Photography)/ On right is the pachanot

!!_021_pachanoi_buds_compared

  A closer look
In Peru on left (Geneva Photography)/ On right is the pachanot

!!_022_closera

  In Peru on left (Photographer?)/ On right is the pachanot

!!_024_pachanoi_stemscompared_d

  Ovary & tube
In Peru on left (Geneva Photography)/ On right is the pachanot

!!_025_pachanoi_throatcompared

  Flower tube/receptacle
  Bona fide pachanoi growing in Oz is on left (photo by Zariat) and on right is typical US pachanot cultivar.

 

!!_026_pachanoi_flowerscompared_a

  Flowers:
  pachanoi near Cuzco, Peru on left (Geneva photography) and pachanot in Oakland, California on right

 

!!_027_pachanoi_flowerscompared_b

  Flowers & fruit:
  Peruvian pachanoi photographed by Friedrich Ritter is on the top left and two more Peruvian pachanoi are below it. The pachanot on the right were in California.

 

!!_028_pachanoi_flowerscompared_c

 

  The next image is all the US pachanot cv.
  For pachanoi the ovaries were described as being covered with black wool.
  While these typically do show very short black or dark brown hairs along the axils of the scales on the tube and similarly on the ovary/fruit they are generally obscured by white and/or light brown and/or greyish wool and can be absent. Compare this with the examples of similar locations on the floral tube, ovary and fruit on the Peruvian pachanoi shown above.

 

!!_029_hort_ovaries

 

  Fruit:
  Peruvian pachanoi on left. pachanot on right.

!!_030_pachanoi_fruit_compared

To bring this conversation back towards the elephant in the room:

 If anyone wonders WHY this cultivar now predominates the US market almost to uniformity consider that it shows intense vigor permitting commercial operations such as can be seen below.
  This shows but a small part of a single professional propagator’s mother plants:
(Photos by Anonymous)

11_pachanot_plts_a
12_pachanot_stems_b
13_pachanot_stems_c

 

   Reflect on this undeniable observation: The pachanot is much faster growing, far more cold tolerant, and is both more rot resistant and more water tolerant than a bona fide Trichocereus pachanoi. In fact if a person pumps their pachanot with water it grows almost as well as watermelons.
The simple mechanics of its vegetative propagation combined with its popularity as an ornamental obviously would favor it becoming the predominate horticultural offering over a fairly short period of time (in this case a few decades – possibly as little as around fifty years if it involved Paul Hutchison but there is also evidence suggesting it might have occurred as long ago as the 1930s if it was something from Harry Blossfeld. A more detailed discussion of the existing evidence will be appearing in the next edition of the San Pedro book which will be available on this website along with the rest of Sacred Cacti 4th edition.)

   A small group of friends and I are still actively searching for confirmation that this is what actually occurred.
  It is now so prevalent in US horticulture that it is presently fairly rare to encounter anything else being produced commercially.

   If anyone has more information concerning this plant’s origin, especially if you have facts to the contrary and/or if you can tell us its precise point of entry into US horticulture or offer any additional details, please contact us at:

 

pachanot
@
keepertrout

DOT  net

 

All photographs are copyright by their photographers.

Photos are by Keeper Trout except where indicated otherwise.

  Use your back button to return.

  To go back to the article:

pachanoi or pachanot?

Additional material to ponder: 

 


Copyright © by Keeper Trout